Calls For Evidence

As part of our mission to generate and improve debate about transport and land use in the UK, we regularly issue Calls for Evidence in relation to our research studies. The ITC is extremely grateful to all those who responded and submitted evidence



Current Calls for Evidence


Autumn 2017 (currently running until November 2017)

The contribution of peak and off-peak travel to the urban economy

As part of our ‘Cities and Infrastructure’ work stream, the Independent Transport Commission (ITC) has started a new research study exploring: What is the contribution of peak and off-peak travel to the urban economy? This project is being led by Commissioner Sarah Kendall, supported by the ITC’s Director Matthew Niblett and research assistant Saphia Haffejee for its first phase. To inform this study the ITC is launching a nationwide Call for Evidence and we are keen to hear your views to ensure that we are able to consider the most up-to-date evidence.

Project scope

Patterns of peak and off-peak travel in many UK cities, as well as their economic contributions, are not widely known or understood, yet there is some indication that a broader ‘peak’ travel period is related to the size and vitality of a city. From a policy perspective there exists a tension between the advantages cities draw from a busy peak in terms of justifying investment in transport infrastructure and services, and the problems it causes with congestion and overcrowding. The theory of agglomeration suggests that economic productivity is enhanced by increasing the concentration of people in a given place at a given time; yet there are also economic costs associated with the congestion caused by people commuting in and out of the city at the same time. However, technology and changing employment and social patterns may affect the traditional rush hour peak in the future. We need to understand the implications for transport and planning policy, as well as the wider economy.

This research project aims to generate a better understanding of what is happening today as well as the differences between peak and off peak travel. We will investigate the behavioural, economic and capacity utilisation issues around peak and off-peak travel and the policy impacts that follow. To keep the parameters of the study feasible, we will focus on passenger travel in urban areas, but will cover all major modes, whether public and shared transport or private vehicles.

Call for evidence scope and timing

This call for evidence is focussed on two areas: i) a situational analysis of the current position, and ii) forward-looking options and implications for policy makers and practitioners. We are keen to use information and experience from all our urban areas, including the experience of mega-cities such as London and international cities. The findings will help the ITC to develop policy recommendations relevant for cities across the UK. We would welcome contributions by 17:00 hours on Friday 10 November 2017 in order to inform and shape the next phase of the project which will take place during the first half of 2018.

Please supply examples or supporting evidence from your own city or other cities where possible. 

A. The Existing Situation

Patterns of Demand

  • What evidence do we have on peak and off peak travel trends in our urban areas?
  • What are the differences between morning and evening peaks, between seasons and days of the week? What is the breakdown of journey purposes at these times?
  • How do these patterns differ between various cities and across modes of travel?
  • Are patterns of demand stable or are they changing, and if changing, do you understand the drivers of the change?

Factors affecting demand

  • What are the key social, behavioural and economic factors that affect the time of travel (and by extension peak and off peak patterns of demand)?
  • Who is travelling at different times of day in our urban areas and why?
  • What has been the impact of new technologies and working practices on peak and off peak travel?
  • What has been the impact of new technologies and working practices to increase the capacity of transport systems during the peak?

Economic impacts

  • What are the economic costs and benefits of peak and off peak travel in our urban areas?
  • Is there evidence or analysis of the contribution of off peak travel to the urban economy?
  • Do traditional theories of agglomeration, which justify investment for peak travel, still hold true in 21st century cities?

B. Strategies for the Future

Changing Patterns of Demand

  • How do you foresee patterns of peak and off peak travel changing in our urban areas?
  • Will changing patterns of demand emerge differently across various cities or between different modes?
  • How might our transport system change in response to the future patterns of demand?

Behavioural Change

  • What factors will influence the time people choose to travel in the future?
  • Are there disruptive factors that we can anticipate that will affect peak and off peak urban travel?

Economic and policy levers

  • What scope exists to influence or encourage peak travellers to move to off-peak journeys?
  • What are the investment implications of smoothing out peak travel periods, and what will be the economic impacts of doing so?

C. Other issues

Please alert us to any other relevant information in the context of urban peak and off peak travel that you believe should be brought to our attention.

 

To contribute to this Call for Evidence, please get in touch with Research Assistant Saphia Haffejee at saphia@theitc.org.uk 



Closed Calls for Evidence


Spring 2017

Strategic challenges for UK Aviation

The Independent Transport Commission (ITC) commissioned Dr Rebecca Driver and Analytically Driven Ltd to undertake a study assessing the strategic challenges and opportunities that will shape the UK aviation sector over the next 25 years. To inform this study, the ITC undertook a call for evidence, looking for varying perspectives on the key trends that will shape the whole of the UK aviation sector, from airlines to support services, in the coming years. You can read more about our research to date on UK aviation here on the ITC website, including infrastructure, surface connectivity, capacity and sustainability. In recent years, UK aviation strategy has been dominated by the issue of capacity in the South East. However, in light of the decision to introduce a third runway at Heathrow, the ITC considers that it is time to focus on developing a broader strategy for the sector, and to provide a sound evidence-base to inform future decision-making. While Brexit will clearly play an important role, the ITC was also keen to consider the wider issues that will help shape the development of UK aviation. 

The Questions on which submissions were sought included:

  • Growth of the sector: Is the UK aviation sector likely to expand or contract over the next 25 years? What conditions would be needed to facilitate expansion? Will there be key differences in different parts of the aviation market? How important will different geographic markets be in shaping opportunities? What will be the key disruptors in terms of potential technological developments?
  • Strengths and weaknesses of the UK aviation sector: What are the strengths and weaknesses of different parts of the UK aviation sector? What shapes their performance relative to other countries? What are the key challenges and opportunities that have shaped your business model over the last 10 years? Looking ahead at the next 25 years, are those trends likely to continue? What additional factors will have an important role in shaping the sector?
  • Impact of Brexit on the sector: How should the government approach Brexit negotiations affecting the aviation sector and what should its priorities be? What do you think the main impacts of Brexit will be for your organisation and for the sector more broadly?
  • Public perceptions of the sector: What does the evidence say on how the public perceives the UK aviation sector? Do you think these perceptions are fair? How are perceptions likely to change?
  • Meeting customers’ expectations: Thinking about the services that the industry provides to customers, how well does it do in meeting expectations? What are the key barriers to improving the industry’s performance?
  • The UK’s air connectivity and UK airspace: How does air connectivity in the UK compare to other markets? Are there key differences between air freight and passenger services? What could be done to improve performance? How effectively is UK airspace currently managed? Would there be potential benefits in taking an alternative approach?
  • The regions: What role will the UK’s network of regional airports play in supporting the UK’s connectivity? What could be done to maximize the opportunities associated with regional airports?
  • The effectiveness of ground services and transport links: Given support services and transport links on the ground have an important impact on the industry’s potential, how effective are these in the UK? Are there key bottlenecks in certain locations? What could be done to improve outcomes?
  • Environmental impacts: How effective have different parts of the UK aviation sector been at managing environmental impacts such as noise or emissions? What are the key barriers to improving the industry’s performance?
  • The regulatory regime: Are the different parts of the regulatory regime governing UK aviation effective? What changes would you like to see? How useful would it be to develop a consistent regulatory approach to aviation across all countries? How beneficial would it be if the UK government was able to ensure that UK carriers benefited from the nine freedoms of the air on a reciprocal basis with all the countries that it negotiated with?
  • Additional issues: Are there any other issues that have not been covered in this consultation, that you consider will have an important impact on the UK aviation sector? Are there any issues that you think would benefit from further research by the ITC?

 


Winter 2016/2017

Leaving the EU and Transport

This Call for Evidence was held in December 2016 and January 2017 on the subject of Leaving the EU and Transport. Following the outcome of the EU Referendum the UK is facing a period of considerable uncertainty. The UK Government needs to meet several challenges including working out what positions to take in the prospective negotiations on leaving the EU, as well as the development of a realistic programme for achieving those ends. While much discussion has focused on the economic impacts of leaving the EU, the Independent Transport Commission (ITC) was exploring further the implications for transport and land use, in order to ensure that policymakers take into account the needs of the UK transport and land use industries in their negotiations.

The Questions on which submissions were sought included:

i) Cross-border movements

  • What will be impact of leaving the EU on the cross-border movement of people? How will this affect arrangements at our ports and airports?
  • Would restrictions on labour movements from EU countries have an effect on your organisation?
  • What would be the impact of leaving the customs union on the movement of goods and services between the UK and the EU considering separately entry to the UK, entry to any EU country and entry to non-EU countries?

ii) Funding

  • How do you think your organisation would be affected by a loss of EU R&D and other (e.g. University) funding? Should the UK Government fill any gaps in funding arrangements? How do you intend to retain the benefits from collaborative research?
  • To what extent would a change in the UK’s relationship with European Investment Bank or TEN-T affect transport infrastructure projects?

iii) Laws

  • Would you welcome the UK retaining or changing the EU derived laws (whether Directives or Regulations), which currently apply to your transport or land use organisation (including but not limited to procurement and State Aid rules)?
  • How would your organisation respond to new or amended EU laws in your area that come into effect after the UK leaves the EU?
  • What aspects of currently derived laws would you like to see repealed or amended if such a possibility arose in the future?

iv) Standards, Safety and the Environment

  • Focusing on the impact of EU membership on standards, safety and the environment in the land use and transport industries: Is there a danger of overlapping requirements (EU and UK) requiring greater bureaucracy and cost than at present? How best can we influence the setting of EU requirements in future without being a member? Where do you see advantages in the UK not being subject to EU requirements in these areas?

v) Rights

  • What would be the impact of leaving the EU on passenger rights?
  • Would a change in liability arrangements be welcome?
  • What aspects of current rights could be usefully changed or retained?

vi) Your perspectives

  • What would your organisation like to see achieved from the Government’s negotiations? And what would you like to see from the Government by way of consultation with the transport industry a) before forming their negotiating positions b) during the negotiations?

Submissions: The ITC received a wide range of responses from the industry and the material gathered will result in a paper that will be submitted to Ministers and the relevant Select Committees.


Autumn 2012

What will be the spatial effects of High Speed Rail in the UK?

This Call for Evidence was held during the second half of 2012 on the subject ‘What will be the spatial effects of High Speed Rail in the UK?’. The consultation was designed to investigate how HSR affects those cities and regions it serves, and what high-speed connectivity means for the shape of the UK in the years to come. The consultation is informing the ITC’s research project, and will continue with a number of national workshops and a European symposium during 2013.

The Questions on which submissions were sought included:

  • Will the cities served by HSR become subservient centres to London or be enriched in their own right?
  • How will HSR impact on the economic and social life of the cities it serves?
  • What will be the impact of HSR on those cities/regions it will not directly serve?
  • What should be the top priorities for investment in HSR in order to ensure it improves your locality/city/region?
  • What additional public/private investment should be considered by these cities and their wider region to capture the maximum value?

Submissions: The ITC received an excellent range of submissions to this call for evidence which was held during Autumn 2012. Please see this linked page for details of submissions.


Summer 2012

Aviation Futures: What are the strategic choices for aviation capacity in the UK?

This Call for Evidence was launched in July 2012 on the subject ‘Aviation Futures: What are the strategic choices for aviation capacity in the UK?’. The consultation was designed to provide insights into the challenges facing UK Aviation Strategy, and to inform the ITC’s research on this subject. The submission was followed by a number of oral evidence hearings at Rothschild during November 2012.

The Questions on which submissions were sought included:

  • Is there a need for greater aviation connectivity and capacity in the UK, and of what type? i. Is there a need for greater ‘hub’ capacity or not? ii. Is the need limited to South-East England or more widespread?
  • Over what timescales do we need to solve our aviation needs, both in the short and the longer term?
  • What would be the implications of failing to provide additional capacity?
  • What are the key criteria for determining environmental acceptability of any development?
  • If more capacity is needed, what are the main options to solve this and what are the issues they raise?

Submissions: We received many excellent responses and are grateful to all who contributed. A list of submissions may be requested from the ITC Secretariat, but due to the submission of sensitive information we do not intend to publish responses online.


Spring 2012

Road to Rail: Factors Affecting trends in GB Car Traffic and Rail Patronage

This Call for Evidence was launched in April 2012 on the subject ‘Road to Rail: Factors Affecting Trends in GB Car Traffic and Rail Patronage’. The consultation investigated the reasons why car travel in the UK has been stagnating for a number of years, particularly amongst younger people, while rail travel has been increasing. The findings have been fed into a major new study commissioned by the ITC, RAC Foundation, Transport Scotland and the ORR.

The Questions on which submissions were sought included:

  • What are the reasons behind the recent levelling off in UK car travel?
  • Why are we seeing such a strong rise in UK rail travel demand?
  • Are the increase in rail travel demand and the stagnation of car travel connected?
  • Are these recent trends in car and rail travel demand likely to continue?

Submissions:
We received a number of excellent submissions. The main body of submissions may be downloaded here. Submission courtesy of the DfT and Taro Hallworth